Саг хугасаа

Сүлөөтэ Нэбтэрхэй Толи — Википеэдиһээ
Шууд ошохо: тамаралга, хайха
Саг
MontreGousset001.jpg
Халааһанай саг
Тэмдэг T, t
СИ секунда

Саг хугасаа үнгэрһэн, модоо, ерээдүй[1][2][3][4][5][6] гэһэн гурбан хэмжээсэтэй байха ба тэдэгээрэй хоорондо үрнэжэ бай үйлэ ябадалай үргэлжэлхэ хугасаанай хэмжүүр болодог.[3][7][8] Эртэһээ нааша саг хугасаанай тухай ойлголтонь шажан болоод шэнжэлхэ ухаанай гол шухала һэдэб асуудалай нэгэ байһанаар ерэһэн бүгөөд бүхыл һалбарида хэрэглэхэдэ тохиромжотой байдалаар тодорхойложо ерэһэн болобошье эрдэмтэд үнэндээ тодорхойлжо шадаагүйл байна. Тиимэ болобошье бизнес, үйлэдбэрилэл, спорт, шэнжэлхэ ухаан мүн уралигай һалбаринуудта өөр өөрын гэһэн саг хугасаа хэмжэхэ системые хэрэглэдэг. Гэхэдээ зарим энгиин эргэлзээгүй тодорхойлолтонууд байдаг “саг хугасаанай нэгэ эгшэндэ бүхы зүйл гансал удаа тохёолдодог” “саг хугасаае сагаар хэмжэдэг” гэхэ мэтэ.[3][7][8][9][10][8][11][12][13]

Олон алдартай философууд, гүн ухаантануудай дунда саг хугасаанай тухай хоёр илгаатай үзэл баримталал байдаг. Нэгэниинь “саг хугасаа бол оршолон юртэмсын бүтэсын үндэһэн хэһэг бүгөөд бэе дааһан зүйл юм”. Исаак Ньютон энэ үзэлтэй һанал ниилэдэг байһан бүгөөд заримдаа “Ньютоной саг хугасаа” гэжэ нэрэлдэг байгаа.[14][15] Үүнэй эсэргүү үзэл һанаань “саг хугасаа бол ямар нэгэн үйлэ ябадал, объектһоо хамааралтай зүйл бэшэ, ямар нэгэн зүйлын урасхал баһа бэшэ бүгөөд харин үйлэ ябадалые жэшэжэ харисуулжа дэһэ дараалалда оруулжа байдаг хүнэй оюун ухаан сэдьхэхын бүтэсэ (оронзай ба тоо дугаартай хамта) юм” гэһэн байдаг. Готтфрид Лайбниц[16] ба Иммануил Кантын[17][18] энэ хоёрдохи үзэл һанаанай дагуу саг хугасаа бол ямар нэгэн үйлэ ябадал бэшэ мүн ямар нэгэн зүйл бэшэ, тиимэһээ энэнь хэмжэжэ болохогүй, аялжа болохогүй зүйл юм.

Саг хугасаа бол Олон уласай нэгэжын системын үндэһэн долоон физикэ хэмжүүрэй нэгэн юм. Саг хугасаагаар бусад хэмжэгдэхүүные тодорхойлодог. Жэшээлбэл: үнсэг хурдан, тодорхой хугасаанда хэжэ бай эргэлтын тоогоор тодорхойлогдодог. Саг хугасаанай үйлэдэлэй тодорхойлолто, шудалжа хэмжэжэ бай саг хугасаае тодорхой стандартаар тогтооһон өөр нэгэ дабтамжатай саг хугасаагаар хэмжэхэ шаардалга гараһан ба эндэһээ “секундые” хэрэглэхэ болоо. Энэ нэгэжэнь шэнжэлхэ ухаанай шудалгаа шэнжэлгээ болон үдэр тутамай амидаралда маша үргэн хэрэглэгдэдэг. Саг хугасаанай үйлэдэлэй тодорхойлолтонь тооложо хэмжэжэ болодоггүй саг хугасаа гэжэ нэрэлэгдэдэг зүйл гэһэн ойлголтые халажа энэ бол урдан үнгэрдэг, тооложо хэмжэжэ болодог зүйл гэһэн ойлголтые бии болгоһон. Оршолон юртэмсын үргэлжэлһэн саг хугасаанай шудалгаа шэнжэлгээнь саг хугасаан доторхи оронзайн талаархи асуудалые гаргажа ерэһэн ба энэ асуултань байгаалиин шэнжэлхэ ухаанай шэглэлые шудалжа бай оюутадай һуури ажал болодог байна.

Саг хугасаанай хэмжэлтые эрдэмтэд болон технологиин туһаламжатай тодорхойлжо навигаци болон одон орон шудалал ухаанай һуури болоһон. Мүсэлигтэ үйлэ ябадалнууд болон хүдэлөөниинь саг хугасаанай стандарт нэгэжэ байдалаар хэрэглэгдэжэ ерэһэн. Жэшээлбэл: тэнгэри дэхи наранай хүдэлөөн, һарын байралал хэлбэри, дүүжин һабалуурын һаблалта мүн зүрхэнэй сохилто зэрэг. Оршон үедэ олон уласай сагай нэгэжэнь “секунда” юм. Секундань цезиин атомай сасаруулха сасарагай үргэлжэлхэ хугасаанаар тодорхойлогдодог. Саг хугасаа мүн ниигэмдэ ехээхэнаша холбогдолтой, “саг бол алтан гэһэн зүйр үгэнь үдэр хоногой үргэлжэлхэ хугасаа хизгаартай, хүмүүнэй амидарха хугасаашье мүн хизгаартай гэдэгые анхааруулжа байдаг.

Мүн үзэхэ[заһабарилха]

Зүүлтэ[заһабарилха]

  1. "Newton did for time what the Greek geometers did for space, idealized it into an exactly measurable dimension." About Time: Einstein's Unfinished Revolution, Paul Davies, p. 31, Simon & Schuster, 1996, ISBN 978-0684818221
  2. Oxford Dictionaries:Time. Oxford University Press (2011). 2011-12-18-д хандсан. “the indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future regarded as a whole”
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2
    • Webster's New World College Dictionary (2010). 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “1.indefinite, unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present, or future; every moment there has ever been or ever will be… a system of measuring duration 2.the period between two events or during which something exists, happens, or acts; measured or measurable interval”
    • The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary @dictionary.com (2002). 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “A duration or relation of events expressed in terms of past, present, and future, and measured in units such as minutes, hours, days, months, or years.”
    • Collins Language.com. HarperCollins (2011). 2011-12-18-д хандсан. “1. The continuous passage of existence in which events pass from a state of potentiality in the future, through the present, to a state of finality in the past. 2. physics a quantity measuring duration, usually with reference to a periodic process such as the rotation of the earth or the vibration of electromagnetic radiation emitted from certain atoms. In classical mechanics, time is absolute in the sense that the time of an event is independent of the observer. According to the theory of relativity it depends on the observer's frame of reference. Time is considered as a fourth coordinate required, along with three spatial coordinates, to specify an event.”
    • The American Heritage Science Dictionary @dictionary.com (2002). 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “1. A continuous, measurable quantity in which events occur in a sequence proceeding from the past through the present to the future. 2a. An interval separating two points of this quantity; a duration. 2b. A system or reference frame in which such intervals are measured or such quantities are calculated.”
    • Eric Weisstein's World of Science (2007). 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “A quantity used to specify the order in which events occurred and measure the amount by which one event preceded or followed another. In special relativity, ct (where c is the speed of light and t is time), plays the role of a fourth dimension.”
  4. (2011) «Time» (Houghton Mifflin Company). “A nonspatial continuum in which events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.”
  5. Merriam-Webster Dictionary the measured or measurable period during which an action, process, or condition exists or continues : duration; a nonspatial continuum which is measured in terms of events that succeed one another from past through present to future
  6. Compact Oxford English Dictionary A limited stretch or space of continued existence, as the interval between two successive events or acts, or the period through which an action, condition, or state continues. (1971)
  7. 7,0 7,1
    • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2010). 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “Time is what clocks measure. We use time to place events in sequence one after the other, and we use time to compare how long events last... Among philosophers of physics, the most popular short answer to the question "What is physical time?" is that it is not a substance or object but rather a special system of relations among instantaneous events. This working definition is offered by Adolf Grünbaum who applies the contemporary mathematical theory of continuity to physical processes, and he says time is a linear continuum of instants and is a distinguished one-dimensional sub-space of four-dimensional spacetime.”
    • Dictionary.com Unabridged, based on Random House Dictionary (2010). 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “1. the system of those sequential relations that any event has to any other, as past, present, or future; indefinite and continuous duration regarded as that in which events succeed one another.... 3. (sometimes initial capital letter) a system or method of measuring or reckoning the passage of time: mean time; apparent time; Greenwich Time. 4. a limited period or interval, as between two successive events: a long time.... 14. a particular or definite point in time, as indicated by a clock: What time is it? ... 18. an indefinite, frequently prolonged period or duration in the future: Time will tell if what we have done here today was right.”
    • (1974) Physics. Ronald Press. “Our operational definition of time is that time is what clocks measure.” 
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 Загбар:Cite encyclopedia
  9. Carrol, Sean, Chapter One, Section Two, Plume, 2010. From Eternity to Here. ISBN 978-0452296541. “As human beings we 'feel' the passage of time.” 
  10. Lehar, Steve. (2000). The Function of Conscious Experience: An Analogical Paradigm of Perception and Behavior, Consciousness and Cognition.
  11. Sean M Carroll (2009). From Eternity to Here: The Quest for the Ultimate Theory of Time. Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-95133-9. 
  12. Adam Frank, Cosmology and Culture at the Twilight of the Big Bang, "the time we imagined from the cosmos and the time we imagined into the human experience turn out to be woven so tightly together that we have lost the ability to see each of them for what it is." p. xv, Free Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1439169599
  13. St. Augustine, Confessions, Simon & Brown, 2012, ISBN 978-1613823262
  14. Rynasiewicz, Robert : Johns Hopkins University (12 August 2004). Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. 2012-02-05-д хандсан. “Newton did not regard space and time as genuine substances (as are, paradigmatically, bodies and minds), but rather as real entities with their own manner of existence as necessitated by God's existence... To paraphrase: Absolute, true, and mathematical time, from its own nature, passes equably without relation to anything external, and thus without reference to any change or way of measuring of time (e.g., the hour, day, month, or year).”
  15. Загбар:Cite encyclopedia
  16. Burnham, Douglas : Staffordshire University (2006). Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) Metaphysics – 7. Space, Time, and Indiscernibles. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “First of all, Leibniz finds the idea that space and time might be substances or substance-like absurd (see, for example, "Correspondence with Clarke," Leibniz's Fourth Paper, §8ff). In short, an empty space would be a substance with no properties; it will be a substance that even God cannot modify or destroy.... That is, space and time are internal or intrinsic features of the complete concepts of things, not extrinsic.... Leibniz's view has two major implications. First, there is no absolute location in either space or time; location is always the situation of an object or event relative to other objects and events. Second, space and time are not in themselves real (that is, not substances). Space and time are, rather, ideal. Space and time are just metaphysically illegitimate ways of perceiving certain virtual relations between substances. They are phenomena or, strictly speaking, illusions (although they are illusions that are well-founded upon the internal properties of substances).... It is sometimes convenient to think of space and time as something "out there," over and above the entities and their relations to each other, but this convenience must not be confused with reality. Space is nothing but the order of co-existent objects; time nothing but the order of successive events. This is usually called a relational theory of space and time.”
  17. Mattey, G. J. : UC Davis (22 January 1997). Critique of Pure Reason, Lecture notes: Philosophy 175 UC Davis. 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “What is correct in the Leibnizian view was its anti-metaphysical stance. Space and time do not exist in and of themselves, but in some sense are the product of the way we represent things. The[y] are ideal, though not in the sense in which Leibniz thought they are ideal (figments of the imagination). The ideality of space is its mind-dependence: it is only a condition of sensibility.... Kant concluded "absolute space is not an object of outer sensation; it is rather a fundamental concept which first of all makes possible all such outer sensation."...Much of the argumentation pertaining to space is applicable, mutatis mutandis, to time, so I will not rehearse the arguments. As space is the form of outer intuition, so time is the form of inner intuition.... Kant claimed that time is real, it is "the real form of inner intuition."”
  18. McCormick, Matt : California State University, Sacramento (2006). Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) Metaphysics: 4. Kant's Transcendental Idealism. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011-04-09-д хандсан. “Time, Kant argues, is also necessary as a form or condition of our intuitions of objects. The idea of time itself cannot be gathered from experience because succession and simultaneity of objects, the phenomena that would indicate the passage of time, would be impossible to represent if we did not already possess the capacity to represent objects in time.... Another way to put the point is to say that the fact that the mind of the knower makes the a priori contribution does not mean that space and time or the categories are mere figments of the imagination. Kant is an empirical realist about the world we experience; we can know objects as they appear to us. He gives a robust defense of science and the study of the natural world from his argument about the mind's role in making nature. All discursive, rational beings must conceive of the physical world as spatially and temporally unified, he argues.”